Updated: Aug 1, 2021
If there's one thing you need to know about me, I love Disney movies. I mean it. I really, really, really, really LOVE Disney movies. You could say that I started believing in magic when I was at least 2-3 years old, and I haven't looked back ever since. Since I was born in the late 80s, I primarily watched the animated Disney classics leading up to the Renaissance when all of the animated films became more vibrant, amazing, and just simply unforgettable. If there was a new Disney film, especially if it was animated, coming out that caught my eye when the trailers were released, you'd better believe I would be there to watch the latest masterpiece in move theaters opening weekend (granted if it wasn't sold out!). I guess Disney movies stuck with me the longest because of the power of magic, whether that's a tried and true fairy tale told in a new way, or an original story that takes your breath away with its messages and the characters. It also provided me an escape from the tough times at home and I can go on adventures with many of the characters I've grown to love. Can I be honest with you for a second? For most of my life, I was made fun of for liking Disney movies so much, especially when I was in elementary school and high school. It was almost as if watching Disney films was a bad thing for someone like me to do, and I was stupid for watching them so frequently. Maybe I love learning more about the behind the scenes aspects of the Disney classics, like the cast, animators, technological advances at the time, and the songs. Maybe I love reciting the lines from memory after watching the films so many times. Maybe I love singing the songs at the top of my lungs after a tough day. Why is any of that such a crime, especially in today's society? Can anyone tell me? I'd like to know, and I'd appreciate it if I wasn't treated like a pariah for loving Disney movies so much. For most of us growing up in the 1990s and 2000s, our library of Disney classics consisted of VHS tapes and DVDs of the films we grew up with, like Snow White, Cinderella, Bambi, Dumbo, Peter Pan, Robin Hood, The Great Mouse Detective, Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, The Lion King, Mulan, Hercules, and so much more. Our movie libraries would expand every year to add new films to our collection after seeing them in cinemas, and we could barely contain our excitement to watch these films on repeat. But then, like so many things, we grew up. And in so many ways, Disney movies began to evolve even more. You see, as we grow older, times begin to change. And from that change comes new ideas. Ideas like a princess wanting to marry for love and not only because the prince is drop dead gorgeous or the king wants grandchildren. Ideas like a woman being a warrior and carving out her own path and not settling for what's expected of her. Ideas like a rather beastly prince being so cruel due to his parents being abusive to him. Ideas like a villain being capable of love and goodness before becoming evil. Ideas like a princess wanting to become a queen and rule her country instead of being forced into marriage. Ideas like having a Southeast Asian princess, a black princess, a Pacific Islander princess, and a Latina princess. Ideas like transporting a classic 19th century novel to an intergalactic universe. Ideas like love being more than just romantic. Ideas like adding more diversity to the stories we grew up with. And so much more... I'm grateful for all of the lessons Disney taught me over the years, whether it was animated classics or live action feel good films. The most important lesson taught to me? Never stop believing in magic. As Walt Disney himself said so many years ago: "Laughter is timeless, imagination has no age, and dreams are forever." Even if the stories we know and love are adapted for the next generation. There's a lot of uproar and anger over many of the animated classics in the Disney canon being remade into live action films or even prequels, and I admit, I joined in with much of it for a while. "Why can't they just leave things alone?" "Walt must be rolling in his grave." "It looks awful!" "I'm not taking my children to see that." "Do they really have to remake THAT?" "The original wasn't as good to begin with, so why are they remaking it at all?" "Can't they do anything that's ORIGINAL?" "What would Walt think of all of these changes?" "Why?" "Why?" "WHY???????" Well, Walt Disney had an answer to that question: Why NOT? In this week's blog, I will take you some of my reflections on how timeless Disney films are, no matter when they were released. I will also share with you some observations from others and myself as to why many of these live action remakes are so important and even needed for today's generation. But most of all, I will hopefully remind you to not give up on the magic that was introduced to us as children, and to keep it within ourselves for the rest of our lives, no matter how old we are. It's time to think happy thoughts. All it takes is faith, trust, and yes, even a little bit of pixie dust.
Do you remember the very first Disney movie you ever saw? Did you see it in theaters? Did you see it at home on your VHS or DVD player? What do you remember the most about it? Which character was your favorite? What song do you still love to sing to this day? Was it this particular film that made you believe in magic? The very first Disney movie I saw was back in 1992, and if you know your movie release history, you'd probably figure out it was Aladdin. This film means so much to me because it was the very first film I saw in movie theaters that made an impact on my life. The things I remember the most about Aladdin was the animation and the songs. The colors and designs were so vibrant and detailed, and it felt like I stepped into a storybook. It was truly a sight to behold. And the songs. Who could forget the songs? To this day, "Friend Like Me" and "A Whole New World" will always have a special place in my heart. The musicality that Alan Menken, Tim Rice, and the late Howard Ashman showed in the lyrics and scores always makes me excited to sing along and even dance to these timeless musical treasures. It's amazing that for over 90 years Disney magic continued its legacy through fantastic storytelling, compelling characters, and the songs that still speak to our hearts even after its release over a decade or two later. And it all started with a mouse. Walt Disney's genius and magic began with the creation of Mickey Mouse (originally named Mortimer Mouse, but his wife talked him out of it, thank goodness!) in 1928 in the silent cartoon short, Plane Crazy, and then made his whistling debut in the sound cartoon, Steamboat Willie in 1928. From there, many more animated shorts appeared for the next decade, which led to an endeavor that was considered a "folly." But it would change the landscape of films forever. Walt would create an animated motion picture entitled Snow White & the Seven Dwarves in 1937, and the result was anything and everything Walt could've imagined. It was simply an incredible film for the time - a classic fairy tale told with music, lovable characters, a wicked villain, and music that would be forever an important part of the Disney magic for decades to come. After the so called "folly" turned out to be the greatest thing since sliced bread, more films came out from Walt Disney Pictures. Films like Pinocchio, Bambi, Fantasia, Saludos Amigos, The Three Caballeros, and the list goes on and on. Granted, there were a few bumps in the road with the films released in this canon, primarily World War II and a strike at the animation studios. But somehow, the magic prevailed (if not also a lot of praying). From there, so many more wonderful stories came to life: adaptations of fairy tales, classic novels, short stories, and musicals that captured the hearts and imagination of the young and young at heart alike. But it's not just the animation that stayed in the minds and hearts of audiences from all over the world. It's the characters and their struggles, growing pains, romances, and dreams that we all aspire to in some way. A beautiful, idyllic New England forest where Bambi and his friends would play and grow up together in gave us pure joy and happiness, but also inconsolable grief over the loss of his mother. Mickey Mouse putting on the sorcerer's hat in Fantasia to command the planets and stars, only to realize that even the apprentice still has much to learn. (And all without words, mind you!) The classic fairy tales - Snow White, Cinderella, and Sleeping Beauty - showing us the importance of goodness, love, and happily ever after. And the lovely waltzes weren't bad either! Alice venturing into Wonderland, and the how far the imagination can take you, even if it doesn't make sense most of the time. The unforgettable spaghetti dinner with Lady and the Tramp showed us that falling in love is one of the greatest adventures of all. Trips to South and Latin America with Donald Duck gave us a glimpse of the world and cultures outside of the United States, and how important it is to travel. These films were so colorful and creative, but the messages they taught us stayed with us for many decades to come. It seemed like for much of Walt's life the simple incantations and valuable lessons would be easily passed down for future generations without much alterations. But alas, as I said earlier, times change, and so do people, ideas, and the way stories are told. I'm not exactly sure if there was an exact moment when the formula for fairy tale adaptations because it varies from all over the world, but if there was a time when certain ideas began to change, it would have to be with The Little Mermaid in 1989. For Ariel, her dream is not just to find love. Her dream is to be on land "where the people are" because of her fascination and open minded attitude towards the world above the sea. When you think about it, that's a pretty big shift from previous princesses and leading ladies who graced Disney movies. You see, for the most part, princesses like Snow White and Aurora simply wanted to find love and be rescued by their knight in shining armor. (Notice I didn't include Cinderella in that mix because I personally believe that she simply wanted a night off from being a scullery maid and just be herself. Again, falling in love wasn't the main part of her desires.) Many of these ladies were simply seen for their beauty, and not their inner worth that they have to offer. That seed of change was planted with Ariel, and it started to grow with Belle, Jasmine, Pocahontas, Esmeralda, Mulan, and the rest of the leading ladies leading up to the present. It was quite radical for the heroines to want something OTHER than falling in love and live happily ever after. Something like being appreciated and loved for who they are, both inside and outside. Something like having adventures alongside the heroes or even on their own. Something like having an occupation or dream other than just simply being a princess or a lady. Something like having a voice and taking a stand for something worth fighting for. And many more somethings that would challenge, inspire, and educate us fans for years to come. As many of us who grew up with the Disney Renaissance started to get older, there was a need for more unique stories, retellings of classics, and even sequels for the films we grew up. You read that right. SEQUELS. Fans wanted more of their favorite characters going on brand new adventures, learning new things, and bringing a new sense of magic and nostalgia to those who grew up with the classics and for new fans. And sometimes that featured the offspring of the main characters being an integral part of the story, or even a new addition to an already famous story that was brilliantly told years earlier. I'm not sure if this is true or not, but Walt Disney apparently didn't want any of his animated films to have any sequels of any kind. It probably has something to do with the simple messages that can be passed down from generation to generation. However, not all of the universal lessons from movies released during the 1940s-60s would be read or understood in the same way as our parents and grandparents grew up with. Think about it: While the messages of believing and doing the impossible is still relevant today, themes of romance, family upbringing, heroics, and the definition of "beauty" and "strength" from earlier decades may not be as acceptable in the 21st century. Need another example? Okay, I'll give you an obvious one. Love at first sight in earlier films isn't true in today's society, or as one character from a recent film puts it, "You can't marry a man you just met." As sad as this is, it is a new normal for many families, especially those with daughters, have to contend with. While love is always important in fairy tales, it's taking the time to get to know the other person, develop their relationship, and eventually it may or may lead to love. Love doesn't just happen in a day. Things like this take time and plenty of patience. You literally have to kiss a lot of frogs before you can find your prince. And then there's the idea that women are only good for being beautiful and being rescued by big, strong men. Or even being considered to be man-hungry females. Not really accepted that much anymore these days, especially by feminists! And then there's the messages for the BIPOC and LGBTQ+ communities. Some of these messages from back in the day may not apply to their current situations because they weren't represented in a way that is positive and uplifting. Don't get me wrong; much of the messages about fitting in, being your own individual, loving the pieces of yourself that you view as ugly or odd, the adventures that change your life, trusting yourself, and more are universal for everyone. But the question is, why are these sequels and remakes necessary for audiences if the original universal messages can be easily passed down from generation to generation? I've been doing a lot of thinking about this lately, and here's what I've come up with. There's plenty of moaning and groaning over Disney releasing sequels and remakes of the animated classics from die-hard fans, myself included, and the question that is on everyone's mind is simple: WHY? Why do we need another remake or a sequel of a beloved classic when it's seemingly perfect the way that it is? Well, you can argue about this all you want, but I don't believe that every film out there is absolutely perfect. Even the Disney films. There can be plenty of flaws that are either overlooked during the initial viewing, or thought up through the years. Some are blatantly obvious, but there are others that are more hidden. To start things off, a reason why there is a gravitating need for sequels and remakes from fans over the years is due to time, or specifically how a film has aged over the years. There are films out there that has aged gracefully and the plot and messages are still relevant today. However, for the most part, much of these stories when they were first released hasn't quite been well-received in the 21st century due to the plot and the messages. Certain ideas in a film during that time period were in place because of the idea of "that's how things are supposed to be," and thinking otherwise would make you an outcast. Ideas like women being relegated to only be housewives, mothers, damsels in distress, desperate for romance and rescue from their sorry conditions, and much more. And not allowed to have a job outside the home because that is simply scandalous! Ideas like men being the master of the house and in charge of everything, especially the well-being of his wife and children. Ideas like blacks, indigenous people, and persons of color only being viewed as maids, servants, butlers, exotic shop owners, and never equal to their white counterparts. And often stereotyped and caricatured, I might add. Ideas like princesses are only good for being beautiful and being rescued by their prince or knight in shining armor, and nothing more. You see where I'm getting at here? These ideas of the time may have worked throughout much of the 1920s-60s, but nowadays it's downright appalling. (Needless to say, there are still people out there who still think this way, even if it is the 21st century.) Several examples of this in Disney films can be found especially between the 1940s-60s. Much of the films that deal with BIPOC characters were often stereotyped. caricatured, or even placed in the background roles so that the main, white characters would get more screen time. Films like Peter Pan, Dumbo, and Saludos Amigos come to mind. Much of the women in the early Disney films, especially where Snow White and Sleeping Beauty is concerned, were only seen as frail, demure, and beautiful maidens who needed a man to rescue them. To add onto how time plays a factor in the need for remakes and sequels, another reason why they are popping up more frequently has to do with the cast and how they're represented on the big screen (whether as animated animals or human beings). Let's take a look at this further. When Aladdin was released back in 1992, it was one of the top grossing films that year, but it suffered much controversy from the Middle Eastern Indian and Muslim communities due to its casting and some of the stereotypical portrayals seen in the movie. The voice cast for Aladdin was white, and there were little things said or seen on screen that would make anyone of the Middle Eastern Indian descent's blood boil (does the lyric "brush up your Friday salaam" from "Prince Ali" come to mind?). Another example of this is The Lion King. It's clearly one of the greatest animated films of all time, and even though it used African music and rhythms in the movie's score and songs with the assistance of Lebo M., the cast was once again predominantly white, save James Earl Jones, Whoopi Goldberg, and Cheech Marin. Even in Mulan, there was a glaring problem with is cast, primarily having Eddie Murphy voicing Mushu. Many in the Asian American and Pacific Islander communities were appalled by this addition to the Chinese legend, and how far it strayed away from the original story. And one final reason I can think of for the growing desire for remakes and sequels is a sense of depth to the original messages and more realism to the original story. For this, let's use Cinderella, my all-time favorite fairy tale. In the original 1950s animated film, the message of holding onto the power of your dreams no matter how bleak things look was a relatively simple one for children of that generation to hold onto and pass onto their children and grandchildren. However, in today's society, that message needed to add another layer in the 2015 remake in order to be relevant for people of all ages, and that's "have courage and be kind" because while believing in the power of your dreams is a magical thing, being brave and showing kindness and goodness to others can create a special power that can have just as much meaning. To add onto this, many of the animated films didn't stay true to the original fashions of the time the story was originally published, whether that was the clothing, music, or even dances. Not every dance at the time was a waltz, no matter who romantic it is! This is especially true in Sleeping Beauty, Beauty and the Beast, and Cinderella. These days, many history buffs want to be satisfied with how close the outfits of the past align with what they were taught in school, and whether that's close enough to being realistic while still maintaining a fairy tale nostalgia remains to be seen. (Any history buffs out there who care to elucidate on this, by all means, let me know!) To add onto how time plays a part in the increase of remakes, sequels, or even much of the films going through the Disney Renaissance has to do with Walt Disney himself. Apparently, my mom let me in on some history that I didn't know much about, and I take full responsibility for not doing the in-depth research that I usually like to do. Things like how Walt Disney as a boss wasn't all that great because of how much the films should be made exactly to his specifications, down to the last details. And that would often include adding the racist stereotypes in films like Dumbo, Fantasia, Saludos Amigos, and even Song of the South. Things like how the animators, particularly the female painters and artists in the Ink & Paint Club who were responsible for filling in the color for the characters throughout the 1940s-early 60s during production, went on strikes because of how they weren't being credited for their works or even paid well enough, and doing so much work for long hours at a time without breaks. Much of the work they've done became property of the studio itself, and the chance of every single person being credited was almost nonexistent. Things like Disneyland not allowing people of color to enter when it first opened back in 1957, and it took over 25-28 years for that to change. It also meant that people of color couldn't play any of the characters. So you see, time does play a big factor in why many sequels and remakes are being created and released at a fast and even alarming rate. But that's only the tip of the iceberg. There are plenty of more reasons why Disney is doing this. Especially if one of those happens to be "they've run out of ideas." But have they? Really? (I love writing for you guys every other week, and it's been a joy sharing my reflections and observations on so many things with you. However, I also accept that we can't always agree with everything, and that's okay. You don't have to take what I have to say as the right thing or the best thing. But what I won't accept is any offensive or derogatory comments from anyone. There's enough criticism going around these days, and I simply don't have time to deal with anyone who feels like they just have to say something rotten instead of keeping their mouths shut. I will delete your comment and even go as far as blocking you if you choose to do so.) I get it. I really do. You all want more ORIGINAL Disney films and ADAPTATIONS of the fairy tales and classic novels, and less of SEQUELS and REMAKES. I may never understand why the directors, producers, and writers at Disney decide to not abide by Walt's original wishes to not make sequels or remakes. I may never understand why they've stopped or severally decreased hand drawn animated films. I may never understand why there's a need to update classic cartoon shows from the 80s and 90s, and not retain some of the same simplistic messages and themes that charmed us as kids. I may never understand why the Disney Channel is moving away from making TV shows and movies for all ages and only focusing on content for preteens and teenagers, mainly musicals. I may never understand why some of the most important messages taught over the years through the films and TV shows don't read as well in the 21st century versus the 20th century. I may never understand why there is a need to make fun of (even if it is in good fun) the enduring legacy Disney films left us over the years. I may never understand the need for new perspectives on the characters we grew up with, especially villains, whether that's through alternate universes or prequels. I may never understand why they're not taking risks on their projects and are instead "playing it safe." I may never understand any of this. But here's something to think about: "Around here, we don't look backwards for very long. We keep moving forward, opening up new doors and doing new things, because we're curious... and curiosity keeps leading us down new paths." Walt Disney was truly an innovative human being: he took the question "why?," and simply asked "why not?" He allowed his ingenuity and imagination to take him and his studio places even they had no idea where they would go - an animated cartoon short starring a mouse, the first full length animated picture, an hour long TV show, a theme park, and so much more. After his death, there was much trepidation about how his legacy would continue. But somehow, the stories and music kept on coming for the next 50 years. And yet, even as the studio continued to move forward with new ideas and opening new doors, there is a fear of stagnancy and growing comfortable with what works. I'm pretty sure Walt wouldn't like that. But at the same time, I don't think he'd mind the ways his beloved studio is moving forward. He might've even been humbled in many ways. Not so much by all of the awards and innovations, but also through how much the studio kept moving forward. Remember when I told you about the things my mom let me in on earlier in the blog? Well, after Walt's death in 1966, his nephew, Roy, took over the company, and he was much more open-minded than Walt was. Roy made sure that all of the animators got some form of credit in the films after Walt's death. Including all of the female animators responsible for filling in the color of the characters during production. Roy made sure that people of color were allowed to enjoy the magic of both Disneyland and Walt Disney World, as well as have them play the park characters. Roy made sure to expand the library of stories being told beyond the classic fairy tales, and did his part to ensure that the animators continued to do research in the location where the stories originally took place as well as do extensive studying on how animals properly move to keep its authenticity. Roy was even open to the possibilities of having some of the animated films being translated to the Broadway stage in the 90s, and you know how well that turned out. Sometimes, change can be the greatest form of magic, and the special ingredient it needs is TIME. Maybe animators, directors, producers, and writers did look back on past films and see where there were flaws, no matter how close to perfection it is. Some ways this could be done is adding more diversity to the casts, whether that's in live action remakes or animated films where representation does matter and each and every person should be uplifted and celebrated. Another way is having the simple messages be translated to a new generation, and while it's still important, there are more serious problems surrounding children these days that are out in the open and a film from the 1940s-60s may not always get to the root of the matter. And another way may be to add new technology to help create the vibrant and wonderful stories we've grown to love over the years. And yet even another way is to see that the racist caricatures and stereotypes were wrong then and make an attempt to formally educate others on this through proper discussions with those in the black, indigenous, and persons of color communities on how to be properly represented in films, as well as letting audiences know that there are racist stereotypes and caricatures in their films and animated shorts as a way to show how far we've come, but also how much farther we need to go. One final way of doing this is to have the characters we all grew up with move from traditional 2D characteristics to more realistic human beings that we can all relate to. Stock characters may not always work in this day and age. Even with all of these changes, does that mean the magic has disappeared for good? I firmly believe that it's still there, and it's just as important as ever to keep it going for future generations. We shouldn't have to give up believing in magic because of all of the changes and stagnancy that is going on with Disney right now. If anything, we should keep fighting for it to continue, and inspire new stories for everyone to be represented in. And if all else fails and you still don't want to see any of the remakes, prequels, and sequels Disney is putting out right now, you still have the original animated and live action films to watch for the rest of your lives. Some people are purists, and don't want to see their beloved classics tarnished by the magic of progress and ingenuity, either for themselves or for their children. And you know what? That's okay! There are certain films out there in the Disney canon that are so sacred to people and they feel that a remake or sequel would tarnish the legacy of the original story. I get that. In my humble opinion, these are some of the films that shouldn't be remade at all: Bambi, The Rescuers, The Great Mouse Detective, Tarzan, Brother Bear, The Aristocats, Bedknobs & Broomsticks, Oliver & Company, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, The Princess and the Frog, Tangled, and more. (Several of the films that I really enjoy, like Robin Hood, Hercules, Dumbo, and Snow White, are being remade for future releases. Whether or not I go to see them remains to be seen.) These are just so special to me, and even if they were made between 25-50 years ago, the innocence and messages are still relevant today, and the story is special for everyone, no matter how old you are. But no matter what your opinions are on remakes, sequels, prequels, alternate universes, adaptations, or whatever floats your boat, promise me one thing. Never forget the magic. Always remember that it was these films, characters, songs, and words that helped spark your imagination and the idea that anything is possible. Take the time to reflect on Walt's message about moving forward to new ideas and opportunities, and even in the stagnancy and comfortable feeling of doing what works and not taking risks, let your voice be heard so that his message is repeated over and over again. Let the memories of that first time you saw your very first Disney film inspire you to share that magic with others, especially the next generation. But please don't forget the magic, especially in these times. We need it more than ever.
Disney films and shows that I grew up with made a huge impact on my life, and I may be an outcast for admitting this. The variety of characters, songs, stories, and messages are just some of the things that helped shape my life, creativity, and lessons that I still carry with me to this day. It's hard to see how the magic is still being kept alive with all of these remakes, sequels, prequels, and more being done to our beloved films and shows. Some of us are appalled by these updates, and believe that they should be left alone. However, Walt would probably understand and even respect his beloved films being recreated for the next generation because of the need for proper representation of every race, sexuality, and religion. He would also see how important it is for his messages from over 90 years ago to be translated for the 21st century in a way that's respectful, inspiring, uplifting, and creative. Maybe he would even apologize for being a racist, perfectionist, and even a not so nice boss to his animators and staff. Somehow, the most important form of magic being shared throughout the years is time, and how that over the years change is inevitable and it is good to transform into something even more beautiful than ever imagined. We shouldn't be afraid of change, not even in the world of Disney. But if you do hold so many of these original masterpieces near and dear to your hearts and you can't bear to see it updated, that's fine. The films we grew up with played a vital role in our childhood, and to see them being updated and translated for the 21st century is definitely something we haven't planned on. We may never understand why each of the animated films in the canon has to be remade or have more stories to tell when the initial story was fine the way it is, but think of it this way. Each generation should have the chance to have a film that speaks to them and their dreams, and if the formula from over 90 years ago was still being used, along with some of the ideas during that time, it may not sit well with audiences in the 21st century. And then there's seeing themselves in those roles, not being predominantly voiced by white actors or being stereotyped, caricatured, or offensive to their culture. And yes, there's a need for realism and authenticity in these films because although the animated classics are beautiful, they're not historically accurate and some of the most simplistic messages from the 1930s-60s may not reach deep enough to children who are going through harder struggles nowadays than children did back then. Even through all of these updates and translations, one thing is certain: The magic is still there, and it is needed in this time more than ever. It's not just for escapism, but it's for teaching all of us the importance of believing in the power of our dreams and not letting limitations stop us. Walt certainly didn't. Remember the magic. Never forget it, even on the most difficult of days. And I leave you with one more quote from Walt himself: "All our dreams can come true if we have the courage to pursue them." Let the magic be your courage, and let it inspire you to go for your dreams. And also let the magic open your eyes to what the world could be, not as the world is right now. I certainly have, and I have these films to thank for it, along with some substantial growing up and looking within myself. Always remember the magic. Can you rember back to a summer time, back to watercolor days, that still run through your mind? Oh, I remember, just my old friend and me, runnin' through an open field, the way it used to be?
The feeling that our hearts could just take wings, we could live out all our dreams, the journey there was never far away.
But like a dream come true, that's still inside of you, the secret of tomorrow is to live your dreams today.
Remember the night, remember the feeling, remember the magic in our lives.
You opened up my eyes to a new world revealing, so remember the magic, just remember the magic one more time. Oh, remember...